Table of Contents



Introduction Building, Installing, and Packaging Mini-XML Getting Started with Mini-XML More Mini-XML Programming Techniques Using the mxmldoc Utility Mini-XML License

Release Notes
    Library Reference XML Schema

      0Introduction

      This programmers manual describes Mini-XML version 2.10, a small XML parsing library that you can use to read and write XML data files in your C and C++ applications.

      Mini-XML was initially developed for the Gutenprint project to replace the rather large and unwieldy libxml2 library with something substantially smaller and easier-to-use. It all began one morning in June of 2003 when Robert posted the following sentence to the developer's list:

      It's bad enough that we require libxml2, but rolling our own XML parser is a bit more than we can handle.

      I then replied with:

      Given the limited scope of what you use in XML, it should be trivial to code a mini-XML API in a few hundred lines of code.

      I took my own challenge and coded furiously for two days to produced the initial public release of Mini-XML, total lines of code: 696. Robert promptly integrated Mini-XML into Gutenprint and removed libxml2.

      Thanks to lots of feedback and support from various developers, Mini-XML has evolved since then to provide a more complete XML implementation and now stands at a whopping 3,792 lines of code, compared to 140,410 lines of code for libxml2 version 2.9.1.

      Aside from Gutenprint, Mini-XML is used for the following projects/software applications:

      Please file a bug on msweet.org if you would like your project added or removed from this list, or if you have any comments/quotes you would like me to publish about your experiences with Mini-XML.

      Organization of This Document

      This manual is organized into the following chapters and appendices:

      Notation Conventions

      Various font and syntax conventions are used in this guide. Examples and their meanings and uses are explained below:

      mxmldoc
      mxmldoc(1)
      The names of commands; the first mention of a command or function in a chapter is followed by a manual page section number.

      /var
      /etc/hosts
      File and directory names.

      Request ID is Printer-123
      Screen output.

      lp -d printer filename ENTER
      Literal user input; special keys like ENTER are in ALL CAPS.

      12.3
      Numbers in the text are written using the period (.) to indicate the decimal point.

      Abbreviations

      The following abbreviations are used throughout this manual:

      Gb
      Gigabytes, or 1073741824 bytes

      kb
      Kilobytes, or 1024 bytes

      Mb
      Megabytes, or 1048576 bytes

      UTF-8, UTF-16
      Unicode Transformation Format, 8-bit or 16-bit

      W3C
      World Wide Web Consortium

      XML
      Extensible Markup Language

      Other References

      The Unicode Standard, Version 4.0, Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-321-18578-1
      The definition of the Unicode character set which is used for XML.

      Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Third Edition)
      The XML specification from the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)

      Legal Stuff

      The Mini-XML library is copyright 2003-2016 by Michael R Sweet. License terms are described in Appendix A - Mini-XML License.


      1Building, Installing, and Packaging Mini-XML

      This chapter describes how to build, install, and package Mini-XML on your system from the source archive. You will need an ANSI/ISO-C compatible compiler to build Mini-XML - GCC works, as do most vendors' C compilers. If you are building Mini-XML on Windows, we recommend using the Visual C++ environment with the supplied solution file. For other operating systems, you'll need a POSIX-compatible shell and make program in addition to the C compiler.

      Compiling Mini-XML

      Mini-XML comes with both an autoconf-based configure script and a Visual C++ solution that can be used to compile the library and associated tools.

      Compiling with Visual C++

      Open the mxml.sln solution in the vcnet folder. Choose the desired build configuration, "Debug" (the default) or "Release", and then choose Build Solution from the Build menu.

      Compiling with Command-Line Tools

      Type the following command to configure the Mini-XML source code for your system:

          ./configure ENTER
      

      The default install prefix is /usr/local, which can be overridden using the --prefix option:

          ./configure --prefix=/foo ENTER
      

      Other configure options can be found using the --help option:

          ./configure --help ENTER
      

      Once you have configured the software, use the make(1) program to do the build and run the test program to verify that things are working, as follows:

          make ENTER
      

      Installing Mini-XML

      If you are using Visual C++, copy the mxml.lib and and mxml.h files to the Visual C++ lib and include directories, respectively.

      Otherwise, use the make command with the install target to install Mini-XML in the configured directories:

          make install ENTER
      

      Creating Mini-XML Packages

      Mini-XML includes two files that can be used to create binary packages. The first file is mxml.spec which is used by the rpmbuild(8) software to create Red Hat Package Manager ("RPM") packages which are commonly used on Linux. Since rpmbuild wants to compile the software on its own, you can provide it with the Mini-XML tar file to build the package:

          rpmbuild -ta mxml-version.tar.gz ENTER
      

      The second file is mxml.list which is used by the epm(1) program to create software packages in a variety of formats. The epm program is available from the following URL:

          http://www.epmhome.org/
      

      Use the make command with the epm target to create portable and native packages for your system:

          make epm ENTER
      

      The packages are stored in a subdirectory named dist for your convenience. The portable packages utilize scripts and tar files to install the software on the target system. After extracting the package archive, use the mxml.install script to install the software.

      The native packages will be in the local OS's native format: RPM for Red Hat Linux, DPKG for Debian Linux, PKG for Solaris, and so forth. Use the corresponding commands to install the native packages.


      2Getting Started with Mini-XML

      This chapter describes how to write programs that use Mini-XML to access data in an XML file. Mini-XML provides the following functionality:

      • Functions for creating and managing XML documents in memory.
      • Reading of UTF-8 and UTF-16 encoded XML files and strings.
      • Writing of UTF-8 encoded XML files and strings.
      • Support for arbitrary element names, attributes, and attribute values with no preset limits, just available memory.
      • Support for integer, real, opaque ("CDATA"), and text data types in "leaf" nodes.
      • "Find", "index", and "walk" functions for easily accessing data in an XML document.

      Mini-XML doesn't do validation or other types of processing on the data based upon schema files or other sources of definition information, nor does it support character entities other than those required by the XML specification.

      The Basics

      Mini-XML provides a single header file which you include:

          #include <mxml.h>
      

      The Mini-XML library is included with your program using the -lmxml option:

          gcc -o myprogram myprogram.c -lmxml ENTER
      

      If you have the pkg-config(1) software installed, you can use it to determine the proper compiler and linker options for your installation:

          pkg-config --cflags mxml ENTER
          pkg-config --libs mxml ENTER
      

      Nodes

      Every piece of information in an XML file is stored in memory in "nodes". Nodes are defined by the mxml_node_t structure. Each node has a typed value, optional user data, a parent node, sibling nodes (previous and next), and potentially child nodes.

      For example, if you have an XML file like the following:

          <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
          <data>
              <node>val1</node>
              <node>val2</node>
              <node>val3</node>
              <group>
                  <node>val4</node>
                  <node>val5</node>
                  <node>val6</node>
              </group>
              <node>val7</node>
              <node>val8</node>
          </data>
      

      the node tree for the file would look like the following in memory:

          ?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?
            |
          data
            |
          node - node - node - group - node - node
            |      |      |      |       |      |
          val1   val2   val3     |     val7   val8
                                 |
                               node - node - node
                                 |      |      |
                               val4   val5   val6
      

      where "-" is a pointer to the sibling node and "|" is a pointer to the first child or parent node.

      The mxmlGetType function gets the type of a node, one of MXML_CUSTOM, MXML_ELEMENT, MXML_INTEGER, MXML_OPAQUE, MXML_REAL, or MXML_TEXT. The parent and sibling nodes are accessed using the mxmlGetParent, mxmlGetNext , and mxmlGetPrevious functions. The mxmlGetUserData function gets any user data associated with the node.

      CDATA Nodes

      CDATA (MXML_ELEMENT) nodes are created using the mxmlNewCDATA function. The mxmlGetCDATA function retrieves the CDATA string pointer for a node.

      Note:

      CDATA nodes are currently stored in memory as special elements. This will be changed in a future major release of Mini-XML.

      Custom Nodes

      Custom (MXML_CUSTOM) nodes are created using the mxmlNewCustom function or using a custom load callback specified using the mxmlSetCustomHandlers function. The mxmlGetCustom function retrieves the custom value pointer for a node.

      Comment Nodes

      Comment (MXML_ELEMENT) nodes are created using the mxmlNewElement function. The mxmlGetElement function retrieves the comment string pointer for a node, including the surrounding "!--" and "--" characters.

      Note:

      Comment nodes are currently stored in memory as special elements. This will be changed in a future major release of Mini-XML.

      Element Nodes

      Element (MXML_ELEMENT) nodes are created using the mxmlNewElement function. The mxmlGetElement function retrieves the element name, the mxmlElementGetAttr function retrieves the value string for a named attribute associated with the element, and the mxmlGetFirstChild and mxmlGetLastChild functions retrieve the first and last child nodes for the element, respectively.

      Integer Nodes

      Integer (MXML_INTEGER) nodes are created using the mxmlNewInteger function. The mxmlGetInteger function retrieves the integer value for a node.

      Opaque Nodes

      Opaque (MXML_OPAQUE) nodes are created using the mxmlNewOpaque function. The mxmlGetOpaque function retrieves the opaque string pointer for a node. Opaque nodes are like string nodes but preserve all whitespace between nodes.

      Text Nodes

      Text (MXML_TEXT) nodes are created using the mxmlNewText and mxmlNewTextf functions. Each text node consists of a text string and (leading) whitespace value - the mxmlGetText function retrieves the text string pointer and whitespace value for a node.

      Processing Instruction Nodes

      Processing instruction (MXML_ELEMENT) nodes are created using the mxmlNewElement function. The mxmlGetElement function retrieves the processing instruction string for a node, including the surrounding "?" characters.

      Note:

      Processing instruction nodes are currently stored in memory as special elements. This will be changed in a future major release of Mini-XML.

      Real Number Nodes

      Real number (MXML_REAL) nodes are created using the mxmlNewReal function. The mxmlGetReal function retrieves the CDATA string pointer for a node.

      XML Declaration Nodes

      XML declaration (MXML_ELEMENT) nodes are created using the mxmlNewXML function. The mxmlGetElement function retrieves the XML declaration string for a node, including the surrounding "?" characters.

      Note:

      XML declaration nodes are currently stored in memory as special elements. This will be changed in a future major release of Mini-XML.

      Creating XML Documents

      You can create and update XML documents in memory using the various mxmlNew functions. The following code will create the XML document described in the previous section:

          mxml_node_t *xml;    /* <?xml ... ?> */
          mxml_node_t *data;   /* <data> */
          mxml_node_t *node;   /* <node> */
          mxml_node_t *group;  /* <group> */
      
          xml = mxmlNewXML("1.0");
      
          data = mxmlNewElement(xml, "data");
      
              node = mxmlNewElement(data, "node");
              mxmlNewText(node, 0, "val1");
              node = mxmlNewElement(data, "node");
              mxmlNewText(node, 0, "val2");
              node = mxmlNewElement(data, "node");
              mxmlNewText(node, 0, "val3");
      
              group = mxmlNewElement(data, "group");
      
                  node = mxmlNewElement(group, "node");
                  mxmlNewText(node, 0, "val4");
                  node = mxmlNewElement(group, "node");
                  mxmlNewText(node, 0, "val5");
                  node = mxmlNewElement(group, "node");
                  mxmlNewText(node, 0, "val6");
      
              node = mxmlNewElement(data, "node");
              mxmlNewText(node, 0, "val7");
              node = mxmlNewElement(data, "node");
              mxmlNewText(node, 0, "val8");
      

      We start by creating the declaration node common to all XML files using the mxmlNewXML function:

          xml = mxmlNewXML("1.0");
      

      We then create the <data> node used for this document using the mxmlNewElement function. The first argument specifies the parent node (xml) while the second specifies the element name (data):

          data = mxmlNewElement(xml, "data");
      

      Each <node>...</node> in the file is created using the mxmlNewElement and mxmlNewText functions. The first argument of mxmlNewText specifies the parent node (node). The second argument specifies whether whitespace appears before the text - 0 or false in this case. The last argument specifies the actual text to add:

          node = mxmlNewElement(data, "node");
          mxmlNewText(node, 0, "val1");
      

      The resulting in-memory XML document can then be saved or processed just like one loaded from disk or a string.

      Loading XML

      You load an XML file using the mxmlLoadFile function:

          FILE *fp;
          mxml_node_t *tree;
      
          fp = fopen("filename.xml", "r");
          tree = mxmlLoadFile(NULL, fp,
                              MXML_TEXT_CALLBACK);
          fclose(fp);
      

      The first argument specifies an existing XML parent node, if any. Normally you will pass NULL for this argument unless you are combining multiple XML sources. The XML file must contain a complete XML document including the ?xml element if the parent node is NULL.

      The second argument specifies the stdio file to read from, as opened by fopen() or popen(). You can also use stdin if you are implementing an XML filter program.

      The third argument specifies a callback function which returns the value type of the immediate children for a new element node: MXML_CUSTOM, MXML_IGNORE, MXML_INTEGER, MXML_OPAQUE, MXML_REAL, or MXML_TEXT. Load callbacks are described in detail in Chapter 3. The example code uses the MXML_TEXT_CALLBACK constant which specifies that all data nodes in the document contain whitespace-separated text values. Other standard callbacks include MXML_IGNORE_CALLBACK, MXML_INTEGER_CALLBACK, MXML_OPAQUE_CALLBACK, and MXML_REAL_CALLBACK.

      The mxmlLoadString function loads XML node trees from a string:

          char buffer[8192];
          mxml_node_t *tree;
      
          ...
          tree = mxmlLoadString(NULL, buffer,
                                MXML_TEXT_CALLBACK);
      

      The first and third arguments are the same as used for mxmlLoadFile(). The second argument specifies the string or character buffer to load and must be a complete XML document including the ?xml element if the parent node is NULL.

      Saving XML

      You save an XML file using the mxmlSaveFile function:

          FILE *fp;
          mxml_node_t *tree;
      
          fp = fopen("filename.xml", "w");
          mxmlSaveFile(tree, fp, MXML_NO_CALLBACK);
          fclose(fp);
      

      The first argument is the XML node tree to save. It should normally be a pointer to the top-level ?xml node in your XML document.

      The second argument is the stdio file to write to, as opened by fopen() or popen(). You can also use stdout if you are implementing an XML filter program.

      The third argument is the whitespace callback to use when saving the file. Whitespace callbacks are covered in detail in Chapter 3. The previous example code uses the MXML_NO_CALLBACK constant to specify that no special whitespace handling is required.

      The mxmlSaveAllocString, and mxmlSaveString functions save XML node trees to strings:

          char buffer[8192];
          char *ptr;
          mxml_node_t *tree;
      
          ...
          mxmlSaveString(tree, buffer, sizeof(buffer),
                         MXML_NO_CALLBACK);
      
          ...
          ptr = mxmlSaveAllocString(tree, MXML_NO_CALLBACK);
      

      The first and last arguments are the same as used for mxmlSaveFile(). The mxmlSaveString function takes pointer and size arguments for saving the XML document to a fixed-size buffer, while mxmlSaveAllocString() returns a string buffer that was allocated using malloc().

      Controlling Line Wrapping

      When saving XML documents, Mini-XML normally wraps output lines at column 75 so that the text is readable in terminal windows. The mxmlSetWrapMargin function overrides the default wrap margin:

          /* Set the margin to 132 columns */
          mxmlSetWrapMargin(132);
      
          /* Disable wrapping */
          mxmlSetWrapMargin(0);
      

      Memory Management

      Once you are done with the XML data, use the mxmlDelete function to recursively free the memory that is used for a particular node or the entire tree:

          mxmlDelete(tree);
      

      You can also use reference counting to manage memory usage. The mxmlRetain and mxmlRelease functions increment and decrement a node's use count, respectively. When the use count goes to 0, mxmlRelease will automatically call mxmlDelete to actually free the memory used by the node tree. New nodes automatically start with a use count of 1.

      Finding and Iterating Nodes

      The mxmlWalkPrev and mxmlWalkNextfunctions can be used to iterate through the XML node tree:

          mxml_node_t *node;
      
          node = mxmlWalkPrev(current, tree,
                              MXML_DESCEND);
      
          node = mxmlWalkNext(current, tree,
                              MXML_DESCEND);
      

      In addition, you can find a named element/node using the mxmlFindElement function:

          mxml_node_t *node;
      
          node = mxmlFindElement(tree, tree, "name",
                                 "attr", "value",
                                 MXML_DESCEND);
      

      The name, attr, and value arguments can be passed as NULL to act as wildcards, e.g.:

          /* Find the first "a" element */
          node = mxmlFindElement(tree, tree, "a",
                                 NULL, NULL,
                                 MXML_DESCEND);
      
          /* Find the first "a" element with "href"
             attribute */
          node = mxmlFindElement(tree, tree, "a",
                                 "href", NULL,
                                 MXML_DESCEND);
      
          /* Find the first "a" element with "href"
             to a URL */
          node = mxmlFindElement(tree, tree, "a",
                                 "href",
                                 "http://www.easysw.com/",
                                 MXML_DESCEND);
      
          /* Find the first element with a "src"
             attribute */
          node = mxmlFindElement(tree, tree, NULL,
                                 "src", NULL,
                                 MXML_DESCEND);
      
          /* Find the first element with a "src"
             = "foo.jpg" */
          node = mxmlFindElement(tree, tree, NULL,
                                 "src", "foo.jpg",
                                 MXML_DESCEND);
      

      You can also iterate with the same function:

          mxml_node_t *node;
      
          for (node = mxmlFindElement(tree, tree,
                                      "name",
                                      NULL, NULL,
                                      MXML_DESCEND);
               node != NULL;
               node = mxmlFindElement(node, tree,
                                      "name",
                                      NULL, NULL,
                                      MXML_DESCEND))
          {
            ... do something ...
          }
      

      The MXML_DESCEND argument can actually be one of three constants:

      • MXML_NO_DESCEND means to not to look at any child nodes in the element hierarchy, just look at siblings at the same level or parent nodes until the top node or top-of-tree is reached.

        The previous node from "group" would be the "node" element to the left, while the next node from "group" would be the "node" element to the right.

      • MXML_DESCEND_FIRST means that it is OK to descend to the first child of a node, but not to descend further when searching. You'll normally use this when iterating through direct children of a parent node, e.g. all of the "node" and "group" elements under the "?xml" parent node in the example above.

        This mode is only applicable to the search function; the walk functions treat this as MXML_DESCEND since every call is a first time.

      • MXML_DESCEND means to keep descending until you hit the bottom of the tree. The previous node from "group" would be the "val3" node and the next node would be the first node element under "group".

        If you were to walk from the root node "?xml" to the end of the tree with mxmlWalkNext(), the order would be:

        ?xml data node val1 node val2 node val3 group node val4 node val5 node val6 node val7 node val8

        If you started at "val8" and walked using mxmlWalkPrev(), the order would be reversed, ending at "?xml".

      Finding Specific Nodes

      You can find specific nodes in the tree using the mxmlFindPath, for example:

          mxml_node_t *value;
      
          value = mxmlFindPath(tree, "path/to/*/foo/bar");
      

      The second argument is a "path" to the parent node. Each component of the path is separated by a slash (/) and represents a named element in the document tree or a wildcard (*) path representing 0 or more intervening nodes.


      3More Mini-XML Programming Techniques

      This chapter shows additional ways to use the Mini-XML library in your programs.

      Load Callbacks

      Chapter 2 introduced the mxmlLoadFile() and mxmlLoadString() functions. The last argument to these functions is a callback function which is used to determine the value type of each data node in an XML document.

      Mini-XML defines several standard callbacks for simple XML data files:

      • MXML_INTEGER_CALLBACK - All data nodes contain whitespace-separated integers.
      • MXML_OPAQUE_CALLBACK - All data nodes contain opaque strings ("CDATA").
      • MXML_REAL_CALLBACK - All data nodes contain whitespace-separated floating-point numbers.
      • MXML_TEXT_CALLBACK - All data nodes contain whitespace-separated strings.

      You can provide your own callback functions for more complex XML documents. Your callback function will receive a pointer to the current element node and must return the value type of the immediate children for that element node: MXML_INTEGER, MXML_OPAQUE, MXML_REAL, or MXML_TEXT. The function is called after the element and its attributes have been read, so you can look at the element name, attributes, and attribute values to determine the proper value type to return.

      The following callback function looks for an attribute named "type" or the element name to determine the value type for its child nodes:

          mxml_type_t
          type_cb(mxml_node_t *node)
          {
            const char *type;
      
           /*
            * You can lookup attributes and/or use the
            * element name, hierarchy, etc...
            */
      
            type = mxmlElementGetAttr(node, "type");
            if (type == NULL)
      	type = mxmlGetElement(node);
      
            if (!strcmp(type, "integer"))
      	return (MXML_INTEGER);
            else if (!strcmp(type, "opaque"))
      	return (MXML_OPAQUE);
            else if (!strcmp(type, "real"))
      	return (MXML_REAL);
            else
      	return (MXML_TEXT);
          }
      

      To use this callback function, simply use the name when you call any of the load functions:

          FILE *fp;
          mxml_node_t *tree;
      
          fp = fopen("filename.xml", "r");
          tree = mxmlLoadFile(NULL, fp, type_cb);
          fclose(fp);
      

      Save Callbacks

      Chapter 2 also introduced the mxmlSaveFile(), mxmlSaveString(), and mxmlSaveAllocString() functions. The last argument to these functions is a callback function which is used to automatically insert whitespace in an XML document.

      Your callback function will be called up to four times for each element node with a pointer to the node and a "where" value of MXML_WS_BEFORE_OPEN, MXML_WS_AFTER_OPEN, MXML_WS_BEFORE_CLOSE, or MXML_WS_AFTER_CLOSE. The callback function should return NULL if no whitespace should be added and the string to insert (spaces, tabs, carriage returns, and newlines) otherwise.

      The following whitespace callback can be used to add whitespace to XHTML output to make it more readable in a standard text editor:

          const char *
          whitespace_cb(mxml_node_t *node,
                        int where)
          {
            const char *name;
      
           /*
            * We can conditionally break to a new line
            * before or after any element. These are
            * just common HTML elements...
            */
      
            name = mxmlGetElement(node);
      
            if (!strcmp(name, "html") ||
                !strcmp(name, "head") ||
                !strcmp(name, "body") ||
      	  !strcmp(name, "pre") ||
                !strcmp(name, "p") ||
      	  !strcmp(name, "h1") ||
                !strcmp(name, "h2") ||
                !strcmp(name, "h3") ||
      	  !strcmp(name, "h4") ||
                !strcmp(name, "h5") ||
                !strcmp(name, "h6"))
            {
             /*
      	* Newlines before open and after
              * close...
      	*/
      
      	if (where == MXML_WS_BEFORE_OPEN ||
                  where == MXML_WS_AFTER_CLOSE)
      	  return ("\n");
            }
            else if (!strcmp(name, "dl") ||
                     !strcmp(name, "ol") ||
                     !strcmp(name, "ul"))
            {
             /*
      	* Put a newline before and after list
              * elements...
      	*/
      
      	return ("\n");
            }
            else if (!strcmp(name, "dd") ||
                     !strcmp(name, "dt") ||
                     !strcmp(name, "li"))
            {
             /*
      	* Put a tab before <li>'s, * <dd>'s,
              * and <dt>'s, and a newline after them...
      	*/
      
      	if (where == MXML_WS_BEFORE_OPEN)
      	  return ("\t");
      	else if (where == MXML_WS_AFTER_CLOSE)
      	  return ("\n");
            }
      
           /*
            * Return NULL for no added whitespace...
            */
      
            return (NULL);
          }
      

      To use this callback function, simply use the name when you call any of the save functions:

          FILE *fp;
          mxml_node_t *tree;
      
          fp = fopen("filename.xml", "w");
          mxmlSaveFile(tree, fp, whitespace_cb);
          fclose(fp);
      

      Custom Data Types

      Mini-XML supports custom data types via global load and save callbacks. Only a single set of callbacks can be active at any time, however your callbacks can store additional information in order to support multiple custom data types as needed. The MXML_CUSTOM node type identifies custom data nodes.

      The load callback receives a pointer to the current data node and a string of opaque character data from the XML source with character entities converted to the corresponding UTF-8 characters. For example, if we wanted to support a custom date/time type whose value is encoded as "yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ssZ" (ISO format), the load callback would look like the following:

          typedef struct
          {
            unsigned      year,    /* Year */
                          month,   /* Month */
                          day,     /* Day */
                          hour,    /* Hour */
                          minute,  /* Minute */
                          second;  /* Second */
            time_t        unix;    /* UNIX time */
          } iso_date_time_t;
      
          int
          load_custom(mxml_node_t *node,
                      const char *data)
          {
            iso_date_time_t *dt;
            struct tm tmdata;
      
           /*
            * Allocate data structure...
            */
      
            dt = calloc(1, sizeof(iso_date_time_t));
      
           /*
            * Try reading 6 unsigned integers from the
            * data string...
            */
      
            if (sscanf(data, "%u-%u-%uT%u:%u:%uZ",
                       &(dt->year), &(dt->month),
                       &(dt->day), &(dt->hour),
                       &(dt->minute),
                       &(dt->second)) != 6)
            {
             /*
              * Unable to read numbers, free the data
              * structure and return an error...
              */
      
              free(dt);
      
              return (-1);
            }
      
           /*
            * Range check values...
            */
      
            if (dt->month <1 || dt->month > 12 ||
                dt->day  <1 || dt->day > 31 ||
                dt->hour  <0 || dt->hour > 23 ||
                dt->minute  <0 || dt->minute > 59 ||
                dt->second  <0 || dt->second > 59)
            {
             /*
              * Date information is out of range...
              */
      
              free(dt);
      
              return (-1);
            }
      
           /*
            * Convert ISO time to UNIX time in
            * seconds...
            */
      
            tmdata.tm_year = dt->year - 1900;
            tmdata.tm_mon  = dt->month - 1;
            tmdata.tm_day  = dt->day;
            tmdata.tm_hour = dt->hour;
            tmdata.tm_min  = dt->minute;
            tmdata.tm_sec  = dt->second;
      
            dt->unix = gmtime(&tmdata);
      
           /*
            * Assign custom node data and destroy
            * function pointers...
            */
      
            mxmlSetCustom(node, data, destroy);
      
           /*
            * Return with no errors...
            */
      
            return (0);
          }
      

      The function itself can return 0 on success or -1 if it is unable to decode the custom data or the data contains an error. Custom data nodes contain a void pointer to the allocated custom data for the node and a pointer to a destructor function which will free the custom data when the node is deleted.

      The save callback receives the node pointer and returns an allocated string containing the custom data value. The following save callback could be used for our ISO date/time type:

          char *
          save_custom(mxml_node_t *node)
          {
            char data[255];
            iso_date_time_t *dt;
      
      
            dt = (iso_date_time_t *)mxmlGetCustom(node);
      
            snprintf(data, sizeof(data),
                     "%04u-%02u-%02uT%02u:%02u:%02uZ",
                     dt->year, dt->month, dt->day,
                     dt->hour, dt->minute, dt->second);
      
            return (strdup(data));
          }
      

      You register the callback functions using the mxmlSetCustomHandlers() function:

          mxmlSetCustomHandlers(load_custom,
                                save_custom);
      

      Changing Node Values

      All of the examples so far have concentrated on creating and loading new XML data nodes. Many applications, however, need to manipulate or change the nodes during their operation, so Mini-XML provides functions to change node values safely and without leaking memory.

      Existing nodes can be changed using the mxmlSetElement(), mxmlSetInteger(), mxmlSetOpaque() , mxmlSetReal(), mxmlSetText(), and mxmlSetTextf() functions. For example, use the following function call to change a text node to contain the text "new" with leading whitespace:

          mxml_node_t *node;
      
          mxmlSetText(node, 1, "new");
      

      Formatted Text

      The mxmlNewTextf() and mxmlSetTextf() functions create and change text nodes, respectively, using printf-style format strings and arguments. For example, use the following function call to create a new text node containing a constructed filename:

          mxml_node_t *node;
      
          node = mxmlNewTextf(node, 1, "%s/%s",
                              path, filename);
      

      Indexing

      Mini-XML provides functions for managing indices of nodes. The current implementation provides the same functionality as mxmlFindElement(). The advantage of using an index is that searching and enumeration of elements is significantly faster. The only disadvantage is that each index is a static snapshot of the XML document, so indices are not well suited to XML data that is updated more often than it is searched. The overhead of creating an index is approximately equal to walking the XML document tree. Nodes in the index are sorted by element name and attribute value.

      Indices are stored in mxml_index_t structures. The mxmlIndexNew() function creates a new index:

          mxml_node_t *tree;
          mxml_index_t *ind;
      
          ind = mxmlIndexNew(tree, "element",
                             "attribute");
      

      The first argument is the XML node tree to index. Normally this will be a pointer to the ?xml element.

      The second argument contains the element to index; passing NULL indexes all element nodes alphabetically.

      The third argument contains the attribute to index; passing NULL causes only the element name to be indexed.

      Once the index is created, the mxmlIndexEnum(), mxmlIndexFind() , and mxmlIndexReset() functions are used to access the nodes in the index. The mxmlIndexReset() function resets the "current" node pointer in the index, allowing you to do new searches and enumerations on the same index. Typically you will call this function prior to your calls to mxmlIndexEnum() and mxmlIndexFind().

      The mxmlIndexEnum() function enumerates each of the nodes in the index and can be used in a loop as follows:

          mxml_node_t *node;
      
          mxmlIndexReset(ind);
      
          while ((node = mxmlIndexEnum(ind)) != NULL)
          {
            // do something with node
          }
      

      The mxmlIndexFind() function locates the next occurrence of the named element and attribute value in the index. It can be used to find all matching elements in an index, as follows:

          mxml_node_t *node;
      
          mxmlIndexReset(ind);
      
          while ((node = mxmlIndexFind(ind, "element",
                                       "attr-value"))
                      != NULL)
          {
            // do something with node
          }
      

      The second and third arguments represent the element name and attribute value, respectively. A NULL pointer is used to return all elements or attributes in the index. Passing NULL for both the element name and attribute value is equivalent to calling mxmlIndexEnum.

      When you are done using the index, delete it using the mxmlIndexDelete() function:

          mxmlIndexDelete(ind);
      

      SAX (Stream) Loading of Documents

      Mini-XML supports an implementation of the Simple API for XML (SAX) which allows you to load and process an XML document as a stream of nodes. Aside from allowing you to process XML documents of any size, the Mini-XML implementation also allows you to retain portions of the document in memory for later processing.

      The mxmlSAXLoadFd, mxmlSAXLoadFile, and mxmlSAXLoadString functions provide the SAX loading APIs. Each function works like the corresponding mxmlLoad function but uses a callback to process each node as it is read.

      The callback function receives the node, an event code, and a user data pointer you supply:

          void
          sax_cb(mxml_node_t *node,
                 mxml_sax_event_t event,
                 void *data)
          {
            ... do something ...
          }
      

      The event will be one of the following:

      • MXML_SAX_CDATA - CDATA was just read
      • MXML_SAX_COMMENT - A comment was just read
      • MXML_SAX_DATA - Data (custom, integer, opaque, real, or text) was just read
      • MXML_SAX_DIRECTIVE - A processing directive was just read
      • MXML_SAX_ELEMENT_CLOSE - A close element was just read ( </element>)
      • MXML_SAX_ELEMENT_OPEN - An open element was just read ( <element>)

      Elements are released after the close element is processed. All other nodes are released after they are processed. The SAX callback can retain the node using the mxmlRetain function. For example, the following SAX callback will retain all nodes, effectively simulating a normal in-memory load:

          void
          sax_cb(mxml_node_t *node,
                 mxml_sax_event_t event,
                 void *data)
          {
            if (event != MXML_SAX_ELEMENT_CLOSE)
              mxmlRetain(node);
          }
      

      More typically the SAX callback will only retain a small portion of the document that is needed for post-processing. For example, the following SAX callback will retain the title and headings in an XHTML file. It also retains the (parent) elements like <html>, <head>, and <body>, and processing directives like <?xml ... ?> and <!DOCTYPE ... >:

          void
          sax_cb(mxml_node_t *node,
                 mxml_sax_event_t event,
                 void *data)
          {
            if (event == MXML_SAX_ELEMENT_OPEN)
            {
             /*
              * Retain headings and titles...
              */
      
              char *name = mxmlGetElement(node);
      
              if (!strcmp(name, "html") ||
                  !strcmp(name, "head") ||
                  !strcmp(name, "title") ||
                  !strcmp(name, "body") ||
                  !strcmp(name, "h1") ||
                  !strcmp(name, "h2") ||
                  !strcmp(name, "h3") ||
                  !strcmp(name, "h4") ||
                  !strcmp(name, "h5") ||
                  !strcmp(name, "h6"))
                mxmlRetain(node);
            }
            else if (event == MXML_SAX_DIRECTIVE)
              mxmlRetain(node);
            else if (event == MXML_SAX_DATA)
            {
              if (mxmlGetRefCount(mxmlGetParent(node)) > 1)
              {
               /*
                * If the parent was retained, then retain
                * this data node as well.
                */
      
                mxmlRetain(node);
              }
            }
          }
      

      The resulting skeleton document tree can then be searched just like one loaded using the mxmlLoad functions. For example, a filter that reads an XHTML document from stdin and then shows the title and headings in the document would look like:

          mxml_node_t *doc, *title, *body, *heading;
      
          doc = mxmlSAXLoadFd(NULL, 0,
                              MXML_TEXT_CALLBACK,
                              sax_cb, NULL);
      
          title = mxmlFindElement(doc, doc, "title",
                                  NULL, NULL,
                                  MXML_DESCEND);
      
          if (title)
            print_children(title);
      
          body = mxmlFindElement(doc, doc, "body",
                                 NULL, NULL,
                                 MXML_DESCEND);
      
          if (body)
          {
            for (heading = mxmlGetFirstChild(body);
                 heading;
                 heading = mxmlGetNextSibling(heading))
              print_children(heading);
          }
      

      4Using the mxmldoc Utility

      This chapter describes how to use mxmldoc(1) program to automatically generate documentation from C and C++ source files.

      The Basics

      Originally developed to generate the Mini-XML and CUPS API documentation, mxmldoc is now a general-purpose utility which scans C and C++ source files to produce HTML and man page documentation along with an XML file representing the functions, types, and definitions in those source files. Unlike popular documentation generators like Doxygen or Javadoc, mxmldoc uses in-line comments rather than comment headers, allowing for more "natural" code documentation.

      By default, mxmldoc produces HTML documentation. For example, the following command will scan all of the C source and header files in the current directory and produce a HTML documentation file called filename.html:

          mxmldoc *.h *.c >filename.html ENTER
      

      You can also specify an XML file to create which contains all of the information from the source files. For example, the following command creates an XML file called filename.xml in addition to the HTML file:

          mxmldoc filename.xml *.h *.c >filename.html ENTER
      

      The --no-output option disables the normal HTML output:

          mxmldoc --no-output filename.xml *.h *.c ENTER
      

      You can then run mxmldoc again with the XML file alone to generate the HTML documentation:

          mxmldoc filename.xml >filename.html ENTER
      

      Creating Man Pages

      The --man filename option tells mxmldoc to create a man page instead of HTML documentation, for example:

          mxmldoc --man filename filename.xml \
              >filename.man ENTER
      
          mxmldoc --man filename *.h *.c \
              >filename.man ENTER
      

      Creating Xcode Documentation Sets

      The --docset directory.docset option tells mxmldoc to create an Xcode documentation set containing the HTML documentation, for example:

          mxmldoc --docset foo.docset *.h *.c foo.xml ENTER
      

      Xcode documentation sets can only be built on Mac OS X with Xcode 3.0 or higher installed.

      Commenting Your Code

      As noted previously, mxmldoc looks for in-line comments to describe the functions, types, and constants in your code. Mxmldoc will document all public names it finds in your source files - any names starting with the underscore character (_) or names that are documented with the @private@ directive are treated as private and are not documented.

      Comments appearing directly before a function or type definition are used to document that function or type. Comments appearing after argument, definition, return type, or variable declarations are used to document that argument, definition, return type, or variable. For example, the following code excerpt defines a key/value structure and a function that creates a new instance of that structure:

          /* A key/value pair. This is used with the
             dictionary structure. */
      
          struct keyval
          {
            char *key; /* Key string */
            char *val; /* Value string */
          };
      
          /* Create a new key/value pair. */
      
          struct keyval * /* New key/value pair */
          new_keyval(
              const char *key, /* Key string */
      	const char *val) /* Value string */
          {
            ...
          }
      

      Mxmldoc also knows to remove extra asterisks (*) from the comment string, so the comment string:

          /*
           * Compute the value of PI.
           *
           * The function connects to an Internet server
           * that streams audio of mathematical monks
           * chanting the first 100 digits of PI.
           */
      

      will be shown as:

          Compute the value of PI.
      
          The function connects to an Internet server
          that streams audio of mathematical monks
          chanting the first 100 digits of PI.
      

      Comments can also include the following special @name ...@ directive strings:

      • @deprecated@ - flags the item as deprecated to discourage its use
      • @private@ - flags the item as private so it will not be included in the documentation
      • @since ...@ - flags the item as new since a particular release. The text following the @since up to the closing @ is highlighted in the generated documentation, e.g. @since Mini-XML 2.7@.

      Titles, Sections, and Introductions

      Mxmldoc also provides options to set the title, section, and introduction text for the generated documentation. The --title text option specifies the title for the documentation. The title string is usually put in quotes:

          mxmldoc filename.xml \
              --title "My Famous Documentation" \
              >filename.html ENTER
      

      The --section name option specifies the section for the documentation. For HTML documentation, the name is placed in a HTML comment such as:

          <!-- SECTION: name -->
      

      For man pages, the section name is usually just a number ("3"), or a number followed by a vendor name ("3acme"). The section name is used in the .TH directive in the man page:

          .TH mylibrary 3acme "My Title" ...
      

      The default section name for man page output is "3". There is no default section name for HTML output.

      Finally, the --intro filename option specifies a file to embed after the title and section but before the generated documentation. For HTML documentation, the file must consist of valid HTML without the usual DOCTYPE, html, and body elements. For man page documentation, the file must consist of valid nroff(1) text.


      AMini-XML License

      The Mini-XML library and included programs are provided under the terms of the GNU Library General Public License version 2 (LGPL2) with the following exceptions:

      1. Static linking of applications to the Mini-XML library does not constitute a derivative work and does not require the author to provide source code for the application, use the shared Mini-XML libraries, or link their applications against a user-supplied version of Mini-XML.

      If you link the application to a modified version of Mini-XML, then the changes to Mini-XML must be provided under the terms of the LGPL2 in sections 1, 2, and 4.

      2. You do not have to provide a copy of the Mini-XML license with programs that are linked to the Mini-XML library, nor do you have to identify the Mini-XML license in your program or documentation as required by section 6 of the LGPL2.

       

      GNU LIBRARY GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE

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      This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License.

      12. If the distribution and/or use of the Library is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the original copyright holder who places the Library under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License.

      13. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the Library General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.

      Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Library specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Library does not specify a license version number, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation.

      14. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Library into other free programs whose distribution conditions are incompatible with these, write to the author to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes make exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.

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      END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS

      How to Apply These Terms to Your New Libraries

      If you develop a new library, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public, we recommend making it free software that everyone can redistribute and change. You can do so by permitting redistribution under these terms (or, alternatively, under the terms of the ordinary General Public License).

      To apply these terms, attach the following notices to the library. It is safest to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.

        one line to give the library's name and an idea of what it does.
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      Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.

      You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the library, if necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names:

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        signature of Ty Coon, 1 April 1990 Ty Coon, President of Vice

      That's all there is to it!


      BRelease Notes

      Changes in Mini-XML 2.10

      • The version number in mxml.h was wrong (Bug #532)
      • The mxml.spec file was out of date (Bug #521)
      • Mini-XML no longer allows malformed element names (Bug #509)
      • mxmlLoad* and mxmlSAXLoad* did not properly create text nodes when MXML_TEXT_CALLBACK was specified (Bug #531)
      • mxmlDelete used a recursive algorithm which could require large amounts of stack space depending on the file (Bug #549, CVE-2016-4570)
      • mxmlWrite* used a recursive algorithm which could require large amounts of stack space depending on the file (Bug #549, CVE-2016-4571)

      Changes in Mini-XML 2.9

      • mxmlLoad* did not correctly load value nodes with MXML_NO_CALLBACK or MXML_TEXT_CALLBACK (Bug #502)

      Changes in Mini-XML 2.8

      • Now call docsetutil using xcrun on OS X (Bug #458)
      • mxmldoc did not escape special HTML characters inside @code foo@ comments.
      • Fixed a memory leak in mxmlElementDeleteAttr (Bug #452)
      • Added MXML_MAJOR/MINOR_VERSION definitions to mxml.h (Bug $461)
      • Fixed a bug reading UTF-16 characters from a file (Bug #454)
      • Fixed a memory leak when loading invalid XML (Bug #496)
      • Fixed an XML fragment loading problem (Bug #494)

      Changes in Mini-XML 2.7

      • Added 64-bit configurations to the VC++ project files (STR #129)
      • Fixed conformance of mxmldoc's HTML and CSS output.
      • Added data accessor ("get") functions and made the mxml_node_t and mxml_index_t structures private but still available in the Mini-XML header to preserve source compatibility (STR #118)
      • Updated the source headers to reference the Mini-XML license and its exceptions to the LGPL2 (STR #108)
      • Added a new mxmlFindPath() function to find the value node of a named element (STR #110)
      • Building a static version of the library did not work on Windows (STR #112)
      • The shared library did not include a destructor for the thread- specific data key on UNIX-based operating systems (STR #103)
      • mxmlLoad* did not error out on XML with multiple root nodes (STR #101)
      • Fixed an issue with the _mxml_vstrdupf function (STR #107)
      • mxmlSave* no longer write all siblings of the passed node, just that node and its children (STR #109)

      Changes in Mini-XML 2.6

      • Documentation fixes (STR #91, STR #92)
      • The mxmldoc program did not handle typedef comments properly (STR #72)
      • Added support for "long long" printf formats.
      • The XML parser now ignores BOMs in UTF-8 XML files (STR #89)
      • The mxmldoc program now supports generating Xcode documentation sets.
      • mxmlSave*() did not output UTF-8 correctly on some platforms.
      • mxmlNewXML() now adds encoding="utf-8" in the ?xml directive to avoid problems with non-conformant XML parsers that assume something other than UTF-8 as the default encoding.
      • Wrapping was not disabled when mxmlSetWrapMargin(0) was called, and "<?xml ... ?>" was always followed by a newline (STR #76)
      • The mxml.pc.in file was broken (STR #79)
      • The mxmldoc program now handles "typedef enum name {} name" correctly (STR #72)

      Changes in Mini-XML 2.5

      • The mxmldoc program now makes greater use of CSS and supports a --css option to embed an alternate stylesheet.
      • The mxmldoc program now supports --header and --footer options to insert documentation content before and after the generated content.
      • The mxmldoc program now supports a --framed option to generate framed HTML output.
      • The mxmldoc program now creates a table of contents including any headings in the --intro file when generating HTML output.
      • The man pages and man page output from mxmldoc did not use "\-" for dashes (STR #68)
      • The debug version of the Mini-XML DLL could not be built (STR #65)
      • Processing instructions and directives did not work when not at the top level of a document (STR #67)
      • Spaces around the "=" in attributes were not supported (STR #67)

      Changes in Mini-XML 2.4

      • Fixed shared library build problems on HP-UX and Mac OS X.
      • The mxmldoc program did not output argument descriptions for functions properly.
      • All global settings (custom, error, and entity callbacks and the wrap margin) are now managed separately for each thread.
      • Added mxmlElementDeleteAttr() function (STR #59)
      • mxmlElementSetAttrf() did not work (STR #57)
      • mxmlLoad*() incorrectly treated declarations as parent elements (STR #56)
      • mxmlLoad*() incorrectly allowed attributes without values (STR #47)
      • Fixed Visual C++ build problems (STR #49)
      • mxmlLoad*() did not return NULL when an element contained an error (STR #46)
      • Added support for the apos character entity (STR #54)
      • Fixed whitespace detection with Unicode characters (STR #48)
      • mxmlWalkNext() and mxmlWalkPrev() did not work correctly when called with a node with no children as the top node (STR #53)

      Changes in Mini-XML 2.3

      • Added two exceptions to the LGPL to support static linking of applications against Mini-XML
      • The mxmldoc utility can now generate man pages, too.
      • Added a mxmlNewXML() function
      • Added a mxmlElementSetAttrf() function (STR #43)
      • Added a snprintf() emulation function for the test program (STR #32)
      • Added the _CRT_SECURE_NO_DEPRECATE definition when building on VC++ 2005 (STR #36)
      • mxmlLoad*() did not detect missing > characters in elements (STR #41)
      • mxmlLoad*() did not detect missing close tags at the end of an XML document (STR #45)
      • Added user_data and ref_count members to mxml_node_t structure
      • Added mxmlReleaseNode() and mxmlRetainNode() APIs for reference-counted nodes
      • Added mxmlSetWrapMargin() to control the wrapping of XML output
      • Added conditional check for EINTR error code for certain Windows compilers that do not define it (STR #33)
      • The mxmldoc program now generates correct HTML 4.0 output - previously it generated invalid XHTML
      • The mxmldoc program now supports "@deprecated@, "@private@", and "@since version@" comments
      • Fixed function and enumeration type bugs in mxmldoc
      • Fixed the XML schema for mxmldoc
      • The mxmldoc program now supports --intro, --section, and --title options
      • The mxmlLoad*() functions could leak a node on an error (STR #27)
      • The mxml_vsnprintf() function could get in an infinite loop on a buffer overflow (STR #25)
      • Added new mxmlNewCDATA() and mxmlSetCDATA() functions to create and set CDATA nodes, which are really just special element nodes
      • Added new MXML_IGNORE type and MXML_IGNORE_CB callback to ignore non-element nodes, e.g. whitespace
      • mxmlLoad*() did not treat custom data as opaque, so whitespace characters would be lost

      Changes in Mini-XML 2.2.2

      • mxmlLoad*() did not treat custom data as opaque, so whitespace characters would be lost.

      Changes in Mini-XML 2.2.1

      • mxmlLoadFd(), mxmlLoadFile(), and mxmlLoadString() now correctly return NULL on error (STR #21)
      • mxmlNewInteger(), mxmlNewOpaque(), mxmlNewReal(), mxmlNewText(), and mxmlNewTextf() incorrectly required a parent node (STR #22)
      • Fixed an XML output bug in mxmldoc.
      • The "make install" target now uses the install command to set the proper permissions on UNIX/Linux/OSX.
      • Fixed a MingW/Cygwin compilation problem (STR #18)

      Changes in Mini-XML 2.2

      • Added shared library support (STR #17)
      • mxmlLoad*() now returns an error when an XML stream contains illegal control characters (STR #10)
      • mxmlLoad*() now returns an error when an element contains two attributes with the same name in conformance with the XML spec (STR #16)
      • Added support for CDATA (STR #14, STR #15)
      • Updated comment and processing instruction handling - no entity support per XML specification.
      • Added checking for invalid comment termination ("--->" is not allowed)

      Changes in Mini-XML 2.1

      • Added support for custom data nodes (STR #6)
      • Now treat UTF-8 sequences which are longer than necessary as an error (STR #4)
      • Fixed entity number support (STR #8)
      • Fixed mxmlLoadString() bug with UTF-8 (STR #7)
      • Fixed entity lookup bug (STR #5)
      • Added mxmlLoadFd() and mxmlSaveFd() functions.
      • Fixed multi-word UTF-16 handling.

      Changes in Mini-XML 2.0

      • New programmers manual.
      • Added Visual C++ project files for Microsoft Windows users.
      • Added optimizations to mxmldoc, mxmlSaveFile(), and mxmlIndexNew() (STR #2)
      • mxmlEntityAddCallback() now returns an integer status (STR #2)
      • Added UTF-16 support (input only; all output is UTF-8)
      • Added index functions to build a searchable index of XML nodes.
      • Added character entity callback interface to support additional character entities beyond those defined in the XHTML specification.
      • Added support for XHTML character entities.
      • The mxmldoc utility now produces XML output which conforms to an updated XML schema, described in the file "doc/mxmldoc.xsd".
      • Changed the whitespace callback interface to return strings instead of a single character, allowing for greater control over the formatting of XML files written using Mini-XML. THIS CHANGE WILL REQUIRE CHANGES TO YOUR 1.x CODE IF YOU USE WHITESPACE CALLBACKS.
      • The mxmldoc utility now produces XML output which conforms to an updated XML schema, described in the file "doc/mxmldoc.xsd".
      • Changed the whitespace callback interface to return strings instead of a single character, allowing for greater control over the formatting of XML files written using Mini-XML. THIS CHANGE WILL REQUIRE CHANGES TO YOUR 1.x CODE IF YOU USE WHITESPACE CALLBACKS.
      • The mxmldoc utility is now capable of documenting C++ classes, functions, and structures, and correctly handles C++ comments.
      • Added new modular tests for mxmldoc.
      • Updated the mxmldoc output to be more compatible with embedding in manuals produced with HTMLDOC.
      • The makefile incorrectly included a "/" separator between the destination path and install path. This caused problems when building and installing with MingW.

      Changes in Mini-XML 1.3

      • Fixes for mxmldoc.
      • Added support for reading standard HTML entity names.
      • mxmlLoadString/File() did not decode character entities in element names, attribute names, or attribute values.
      • mxmlLoadString/File() would crash when loading non- conformant XML data under an existing parent (top) node.
      • Fixed several bugs in the mxmldoc utility.
      • Added new error callback function to catch a variety of errors and log them to someplace other than stderr.
      • The mxmlElementSetAttr() function now allows for NULL attribute values.
      • The load and save functions now properly handle quoted element and attribute name strings properly, e.g. for !DOCTYPE declarations.

      Changes in Mini-XML 1.2

      • Added new "set" methods to set the value of a node.
      • Added new formatted text methods mxmlNewTextf() and mxmlSetTextf() to create/set a text node value using printf-style formats.
      • Added new standard callbacks for use with the mxmlLoad functions.
      • Updated the HTML documentation to include examples of the walk and load function output.
      • Added --with/without-ansi configure option to control the strdup() function check.
      • Added --with/without-snprintf configure option to control the snprintf() and vsnprintf() function checks.

      Changes in Mini-XML 1.1.2

      • The mxml(3) man page wasn't updated for the string functions.
      • mxmlSaveString() returned the wrong number of characters.
      • mxml_add_char() updated the buffer pointer in the wrong place.

      Changes in Mini-XML 1.1.1

      • The private mxml_add_ch() function did not update the start-of-buffer pointer which could cause a crash when using mxmlSaveString().
      • The private mxml_write_ws() function called putc() instead of using the proper callback which could cause a crash when using mxmlSaveString().
      • Added a mxmlSaveAllocString() convenience function for saving an XML node tree to an allocated string.

      Changes in Mini-XML 1.1

      • The mxmlLoadFile() function now uses dynamically allocated string buffers for element names, attribute names, and attribute values. Previously they were capped at 16383, 255, and 255 bytes, respectively.
      • Added a new mxmlLoadString() function for loading an XML node tree from a string.
      • Added a new mxmlSaveString() function for saving an XML node tree to a string.
      • Add emulation of strdup() if the local platform does not provide the function.

      Changes in Mini-XML 1.0

      • The mxmldoc program now handles function arguments, structures, unions, enumerations, classes, and typedefs properly.
      • Documentation provided via mxmldoc and more in-line comments in the code.
      • Added man pages and packaging files.

      Changes in Mini-XML 0.93

      • New mxmldoc example program that is also used to create and update code documentation using XML and produce HTML reference pages.
      • Added mxmlAdd() and mxmlRemove() functions to add and remove nodes from a tree. This provides more flexibility over where the nodes are inserted and allows nodes to be moved within the tree as needed.
      • mxmlLoadFile() now correctly handles comments.
      • mxmlLoadFile() now supports the required "gt", "quot", and "nbsp" character entities.
      • mxmlSaveFile() now uses newlines as whitespace when valid to do so.
      • mxmlFindElement() now also takes attribute name and attribute value string arguments to limit the search to specific elements with attributes and/or values.
      • NULL pointers can be used as "wildcards".
      • Added uninstall target to makefile, and auto-reconfig if Makefile.in or configure.in are changed.
      • mxmlFindElement(), mxmlWalkNext(), and mxmlWalkPrev() now all provide "descend" arguments to control whether they descend into child nodes in the tree.
      • Fixed some whitespace issues in mxmlLoadFile().
      • Fixed Unicode output and whitespace issues in mxmlSaveFile().
      • mxmlSaveFile() now supports a whitespace callback to provide more human-readable XML output under program control.

      Changes in Mini-XML 0.92

      • mxmlSaveFile() didn't return a value on success.

      Changes in Mini-XML 0.91

      • mxmlWalkNext() would go into an infinite loop.

      Changes in Mini-XML 0.9

      • Initial public release.

      CLibrary Reference

      Contents

      Functions

      mxmlAdd

      Add a node to a tree.

      void mxmlAdd (
          mxml_node_t *parent,
          int where,
          mxml_node_t *child,
          mxml_node_t *node
      );

      Parameters

      parent
      Parent node
      where
      Where to add, MXML_ADD_BEFORE or MXML_ADD_AFTER
      child
      Child node for where or MXML_ADD_TO_PARENT
      node
      Node to add

      Discussion

      Adds the specified node to the parent. If the child argument is not NULL, puts the new node before or after the specified child depending on the value of the where argument. If the child argument is NULL, puts the new node at the beginning of the child list (MXML_ADD_BEFORE) or at the end of the child list (MXML_ADD_AFTER). The constant MXML_ADD_TO_PARENT can be used to specify a NULL child pointer.

      mxmlDelete

      Delete a node and all of its children.

      void mxmlDelete (
          mxml_node_t *node
      );

      Parameters

      node
      Node to delete

      Discussion

      If the specified node has a parent, this function first removes the node from its parent using the mxmlRemove() function.

       Mini-XML 2.4 mxmlElementDeleteAttr

      Delete an attribute.

      void mxmlElementDeleteAttr (
          mxml_node_t *node,
          const char *name
      );

      Parameters

      node
      Element
      name
      Attribute name

      mxmlElementGetAttr

      Get an attribute.

      const char *mxmlElementGetAttr (
          mxml_node_t *node,
          const char *name
      );

      Parameters

      node
      Element node
      name
      Name of attribute

      Return Value

      Attribute value or NULL

      Discussion

      This function returns NULL if the node is not an element or the named attribute does not exist.

      mxmlElementSetAttr

      Set an attribute.

      void mxmlElementSetAttr (
          mxml_node_t *node,
          const char *name,
          const char *value
      );

      Parameters

      node
      Element node
      name
      Name of attribute
      value
      Attribute value

      Discussion

      If the named attribute already exists, the value of the attribute is replaced by the new string value. The string value is copied into the element node. This function does nothing if the node is not an element.

       Mini-XML 2.3 mxmlElementSetAttrf

      Set an attribute with a formatted value.

      void mxmlElementSetAttrf (
          mxml_node_t *node,
          const char *name,
          const char *format,
          ...
      );

      Parameters

      node
      Element node
      name
      Name of attribute
      format
      Printf-style attribute value
      ...
      Additional arguments as needed

      Discussion

      If the named attribute already exists, the value of the attribute is replaced by the new formatted string. The formatted string value is copied into the element node. This function does nothing if the node is not an element.

      mxmlEntityAddCallback

      Add a callback to convert entities to Unicode.

      int mxmlEntityAddCallback (
          mxml_entity_cb_t cb
      );

      Parameters

      cb
      Callback function to add

      Return Value

      0 on success, -1 on failure

      mxmlEntityGetName

      Get the name that corresponds to the character value.

      const char *mxmlEntityGetName (
          int val
      );

      Parameters

      val
      Character value

      Return Value

      Entity name or NULL

      Discussion

      If val does not need to be represented by a named entity, NULL is returned.

      mxmlEntityGetValue

      Get the character corresponding to a named entity.

      int mxmlEntityGetValue (
          const char *name
      );

      Parameters

      name
      Entity name

      Return Value

      Character value or -1 on error

      Discussion

      The entity name can also be a numeric constant. -1 is returned if the name is not known.

      mxmlEntityRemoveCallback

      Remove a callback.

      void mxmlEntityRemoveCallback (
          mxml_entity_cb_t cb
      );

      Parameters

      cb
      Callback function to remove

      mxmlFindElement

      Find the named element.

      mxml_node_t *mxmlFindElement (
          mxml_node_t *node,
          mxml_node_t *top,
          const char *name,
          const char *attr,
          const char *value,
          int descend
      );

      Parameters

      node
      Current node
      top
      Top node
      name
      Element name or NULL for any
      attr
      Attribute name, or NULL for none
      value
      Attribute value, or NULL for any
      descend
      Descend into tree - MXML_DESCEND, MXML_NO_DESCEND, or MXML_DESCEND_FIRST

      Return Value

      Element node or NULL

      Discussion

      The search is constrained by the name, attribute name, and value; any NULL names or values are treated as wildcards, so different kinds of searches can be implemented by looking for all elements of a given name or all elements with a specific attribute. The descend argument determines whether the search descends into child nodes; normally you will use MXML_DESCEND_FIRST for the initial search and MXML_NO_DESCEND to find additional direct descendents of the node. The top node argument constrains the search to a particular node's children.

       Mini-XML 2.7 mxmlFindPath

      Find a node with the given path.

      mxml_node_t *mxmlFindPath (
          mxml_node_t *top,
          const char *path
      );

      Parameters

      top
      Top node
      path
      Path to element

      Return Value

      Found node or NULL

      Discussion

      The "path" is a slash-separated list of element names. The name "*" is considered a wildcard for one or more levels of elements. For example, "foo/one/two", "bar/two/one", "*/one", and so forth.

      The first child node of the found node is returned if the given node has children and the first child is a value node.

       Mini-XML 2.7 mxmlGetCDATA

      Get the value for a CDATA node.

      const char *mxmlGetCDATA (
          mxml_node_t *node
      );

      Parameters

      node
      Node to get

      Return Value

      CDATA value or NULL

      Discussion

      NULL is returned if the node is not a CDATA element.

       Mini-XML 2.7 mxmlGetCustom

      Get the value for a custom node.

      const void *mxmlGetCustom (
          mxml_node_t *node
      );

      Parameters

      node
      Node to get

      Return Value

      Custom value or NULL

      Discussion

      NULL is returned if the node (or its first child) is not a custom value node.

       Mini-XML 2.7 mxmlGetElement

      Get the name for an element node.

      const char *mxmlGetElement (
          mxml_node_t *node
      );

      Parameters

      node
      Node to get

      Return Value

      Element name or NULL

      Discussion

      NULL is returned if the node is not an element node.

       Mini-XML 2.7 mxmlGetFirstChild

      Get the first child of an element node.

      mxml_node_t *mxmlGetFirstChild (
          mxml_node_t *node
      );

      Parameters

      node
      Node to get

      Return Value

      First child or NULL

      Discussion

      NULL is returned if the node is not an element node or if the node has no children.

       Mini-XML 2.7 mxmlGetInteger

      Get the integer value from the specified node or its first child.

      int mxmlGetInteger (
          mxml_node_t *node
      );

      Parameters

      node
      Node to get

      Return Value

      Integer value or 0

      Discussion

      0 is returned if the node (or its first child) is not an integer value node.

       Mini-XML 2.7 mxmlGetLastChild

      Get the last child of an element node.

      mxml_node_t *mxmlGetLastChild (
          mxml_node_t *node
      );

      Parameters

      node
      Node to get

      Return Value

      Last child or NULL

      Discussion

      NULL is returned if the node is not an element node or if the node has no children.

      mxmlGetNextSibling

      Return the node type...

      mxml_node_t *mxmlGetNextSibling (
          mxml_node_t *node
      );

      Parameters

      node
      Node to get

      Return Value

      Get the next node for the current parent.

      NULL is returned if this is the last child for the current parent.

       Mini-XML 2.7 mxmlGetOpaque

      Get an opaque string value for a node or its first child.

      const char *mxmlGetOpaque (
          mxml_node_t *node
      );

      Parameters

      node
      Node to get

      Return Value

      Opaque string or NULL

      Discussion

      NULL is returned if the node (or its first child) is not an opaque value node.

       Mini-XML 2.7 mxmlGetParent

      Get the parent node.

      mxml_node_t *mxmlGetParent (
          mxml_node_t *node
      );

      Parameters

      node
      Node to get

      Return Value

      Parent node or NULL

      Discussion

      NULL is returned for a root node.

       Mini-XML 2.7 mxmlGetPrevSibling

      Get the previous node for the current parent.

      mxml_node_t *mxmlGetPrevSibling (
          mxml_node_t *node
      );

      Parameters

      node
      Node to get

      Return Value

      Previous node or NULL

      Discussion

      NULL is returned if this is the first child for the current parent.

       Mini-XML 2.7 mxmlGetReal

      Get the real value for a node or its first child.

      double mxmlGetReal (
          mxml_node_t *node
      );

      Parameters

      node
      Node to get

      Return Value

      Real value or 0.0

      Discussion

      0.0 is returned if the node (or its first child) is not a real value node.

       Mini-XML 2.7 mxmlGetRefCount

      Get the current reference (use) count for a node.

      int mxmlGetRefCount (
          mxml_node_t *node
      );

      Parameters

      node
      Node

      Return Value

      Reference count

      Discussion

      The initial reference count of new nodes is 1. Use the mxmlRetain and mxmlRelease functions to increment and decrement a node's reference count. .

       Mini-XML 2.7 mxmlGetText

      Get the text value for a node or its first child.

      const char *mxmlGetText (
          mxml_node_t *node,
          int *whitespace
      );

      Parameters

      node
      Node to get
      whitespace
      1 if string is preceded by whitespace, 0 otherwise

      Return Value

      Text string or NULL

      Discussion

      NULL is returned if the node (or its first child) is not a text node. The "whitespace" argument can be NULL.

       Mini-XML 2.7 mxmlGetType

      Get the node type.

      mxml_type_t mxmlGetType (
          mxml_node_t *node
      );

      Parameters

      node
      Node to get

      Return Value

      Type of node

      Discussion

      MXML_IGNORE is returned if "node" is NULL.

       Mini-XML 2.7 mxmlGetUserData

      Get the user data pointer for a node.

      void *mxmlGetUserData (
          mxml_node_t *node
      );

      Parameters

      node
      Node to get

      Return Value

      User data pointer

      mxmlIndexDelete

      Delete an index.

      void mxmlIndexDelete (
          mxml_index_t *ind
      );

      Parameters

      ind
      Index to delete

      mxmlIndexEnum

      Return the next node in the index.

      mxml_node_t *mxmlIndexEnum (
          mxml_index_t *ind
      );

      Parameters

      ind
      Index to enumerate

      Return Value

      Next node or NULL if there is none

      Discussion

      Nodes are returned in the sorted order of the index.

      mxmlIndexFind

      Find the next matching node.

      mxml_node_t *mxmlIndexFind (
          mxml_index_t *ind,
          const char *element,
          const char *value
      );

      Parameters

      ind
      Index to search
      element
      Element name to find, if any
      value
      Attribute value, if any

      Return Value

      Node or NULL if none found

      Discussion

      You should call mxmlIndexReset() prior to using this function for the first time with a particular set of "element" and "value" strings. Passing NULL for both "element" and "value" is equivalent to calling mxmlIndexEnum().

       Mini-XML 2.7 mxmlIndexGetCount

      Get the number of nodes in an index.

      int mxmlIndexGetCount (
          mxml_index_t *ind
      );

      Parameters

      ind
      Index of nodes

      Return Value

      Number of nodes in index

      mxmlIndexNew

      Create a new index.

      mxml_index_t *mxmlIndexNew (
          mxml_node_t *node,
          const char *element,
          const char *attr
      );

      Parameters

      node
      XML node tree
      element
      Element to index or NULL for all
      attr
      Attribute to index or NULL for none

      Return Value

      New index

      Discussion

      The index will contain all nodes that contain the named element and/or attribute. If both "element" and "attr" are NULL, then the index will contain a sorted list of the elements in the node tree. Nodes are sorted by element name and optionally by attribute value if the "attr" argument is not NULL.

      mxmlIndexReset

      Reset the enumeration/find pointer in the index and return the first node in the index.

      mxml_node_t *mxmlIndexReset (
          mxml_index_t *ind
      );

      Parameters

      ind
      Index to reset

      Return Value

      First node or NULL if there is none

      Discussion

      This function should be called prior to using mxmlIndexEnum() or mxmlIndexFind() for the first time.

      mxmlLoadFd

      Load a file descriptor into an XML node tree.

      mxml_node_t *mxmlLoadFd (
          mxml_node_t *top,
          int fd,
          mxml_load_cb_t cb
      );

      Parameters

      top
      Top node
      fd
      File descriptor to read from
      cb
      Callback function or MXML_NO_CALLBACK

      Return Value

      First node or NULL if the file could not be read.

      Discussion

      The nodes in the specified file are added to the specified top node. If no top node is provided, the XML file MUST be well-formed with a single parent node like <?xml> for the entire file. The callback function returns the value type that should be used for child nodes. If MXML_NO_CALLBACK is specified then all child nodes will be either MXML_ELEMENT or MXML_TEXT nodes.

      The constants MXML_INTEGER_CALLBACK, MXML_OPAQUE_CALLBACK, MXML_REAL_CALLBACK, and MXML_TEXT_CALLBACK are defined for loading child nodes of the specified type.

      mxmlLoadFile

      Load a file into an XML node tree.

      mxml_node_t *mxmlLoadFile (
          mxml_node_t *top,
          FILE *fp,
          mxml_load_cb_t cb
      );

      Parameters

      top
      Top node
      fp
      File to read from
      cb
      Callback function or MXML_NO_CALLBACK

      Return Value

      First node or NULL if the file could not be read.

      Discussion

      The nodes in the specified file are added to the specified top node. If no top node is provided, the XML file MUST be well-formed with a single parent node like <?xml> for the entire file. The callback function returns the value type that should be used for child nodes. If MXML_NO_CALLBACK is specified then all child nodes will be either MXML_ELEMENT or MXML_TEXT nodes.

      The constants MXML_INTEGER_CALLBACK, MXML_OPAQUE_CALLBACK, MXML_REAL_CALLBACK, and MXML_TEXT_CALLBACK are defined for loading child nodes of the specified type.

      mxmlLoadString

      Load a string into an XML node tree.

      mxml_node_t *mxmlLoadString (
          mxml_node_t *top,
          const char *s,
          mxml_load_cb_t cb
      );

      Parameters

      top
      Top node
      s
      String to load
      cb
      Callback function or MXML_NO_CALLBACK

      Return Value

      First node or NULL if the string has errors.

      Discussion

      The nodes in the specified string are added to the specified top node. If no top node is provided, the XML string MUST be well-formed with a single parent node like <?xml> for the entire string. The callback function returns the value type that should be used for child nodes. If MXML_NO_CALLBACK is specified then all child nodes will be either MXML_ELEMENT or MXML_TEXT nodes.

      The constants MXML_INTEGER_CALLBACK, MXML_OPAQUE_CALLBACK, MXML_REAL_CALLBACK, and MXML_TEXT_CALLBACK are defined for loading child nodes of the specified type.

       Mini-XML 2.3 mxmlNewCDATA

      Create a new CDATA node.

      mxml_node_t *mxmlNewCDATA (
          mxml_node_t *parent,
          const char *data
      );

      Parameters

      parent
      Parent node or MXML_NO_PARENT
      data
      Data string

      Return Value

      New node

      Discussion

      The new CDATA node is added to the end of the specified parent's child list. The constant MXML_NO_PARENT can be used to specify that the new CDATA node has no parent. The data string must be nul-terminated and is copied into the new node. CDATA nodes use the MXML_ELEMENT type.

       Mini-XML 2.1 mxmlNewCustom

      Create a new custom data node.

      mxml_node_t *mxmlNewCustom (
          mxml_node_t *parent,
          void *data,
          mxml_custom_destroy_cb_t destroy
      );

      Parameters

      parent
      Parent node or MXML_NO_PARENT
      data
      Pointer to data
      destroy
      Function to destroy data

      Return Value

      New node

      Discussion

      The new custom node is added to the end of the specified parent's child list. The constant MXML_NO_PARENT can be used to specify that the new element node has no parent. NULL can be passed when the data in the node is not dynamically allocated or is separately managed.

      mxmlNewElement

      Create a new element node.

      mxml_node_t *mxmlNewElement (
          mxml_node_t *parent,
          const char *name
      );

      Parameters

      parent
      Parent node or MXML_NO_PARENT
      name
      Name of element

      Return Value

      New node

      Discussion

      The new element node is added to the end of the specified parent's child list. The constant MXML_NO_PARENT can be used to specify that the new element node has no parent.

      mxmlNewInteger

      Create a new integer node.

      mxml_node_t *mxmlNewInteger (
          mxml_node_t *parent,
          int integer
      );

      Parameters

      parent
      Parent node or MXML_NO_PARENT
      integer
      Integer value

      Return Value

      New node

      Discussion

      The new integer node is added to the end of the specified parent's child list. The constant MXML_NO_PARENT can be used to specify that the new integer node has no parent.

      mxmlNewOpaque

      Create a new opaque string.

      mxml_node_t *mxmlNewOpaque (
          mxml_node_t *parent,
          const char *opaque
      );

      Parameters

      parent
      Parent node or MXML_NO_PARENT
      opaque
      Opaque string

      Return Value

      New node

      Discussion

      The new opaque node is added to the end of the specified parent's child list. The constant MXML_NO_PARENT can be used to specify that the new opaque node has no parent. The opaque string must be nul-terminated and is copied into the new node.

      mxmlNewReal

      Create a new real number node.

      mxml_node_t *mxmlNewReal (
          mxml_node_t *parent,
          double real
      );

      Parameters

      parent
      Parent node or MXML_NO_PARENT
      real
      Real number value

      Return Value

      New node

      Discussion

      The new real number node is added to the end of the specified parent's child list. The constant MXML_NO_PARENT can be used to specify that the new real number node has no parent.

      mxmlNewText

      Create a new text fragment node.

      mxml_node_t *mxmlNewText (
          mxml_node_t *parent,
          int whitespace,
          const char *string
      );

      Parameters

      parent
      Parent node or MXML_NO_PARENT
      whitespace
      1 = leading whitespace, 0 = no whitespace
      string
      String

      Return Value

      New node

      Discussion

      The new text node is added to the end of the specified parent's child list. The constant MXML_NO_PARENT can be used to specify that the new text node has no parent. The whitespace parameter is used to specify whether leading whitespace is present before the node. The text string must be nul-terminated and is copied into the new node.

      mxmlNewTextf

      Create a new formatted text fragment node.

      mxml_node_t *mxmlNewTextf (
          mxml_node_t *parent,
          int whitespace,
          const char *format,
          ...
      );

      Parameters

      parent
      Parent node or MXML_NO_PARENT
      whitespace
      1 = leading whitespace, 0 = no whitespace
      format
      Printf-style frmat string
      ...
      Additional args as needed

      Return Value

      New node

      Discussion

      The new text node is added to the end of the specified parent's child list. The constant MXML_NO_PARENT can be used to specify that the new text node has no parent. The whitespace parameter is used to specify whether leading whitespace is present before the node. The format string must be nul-terminated and is formatted into the new node.

       Mini-XML 2.3 mxmlNewXML

      Create a new XML document tree.

      mxml_node_t *mxmlNewXML (
          const char *version
      );

      Parameters

      version
      Version number to use

      Return Value

      New ?xml node

      Discussion

      The "version" argument specifies the version number to put in the ?xml element node. If NULL, version 1.0 is assumed.

       Mini-XML 2.3 mxmlRelease

      Release a node.

      int mxmlRelease (
          mxml_node_t *node
      );

      Parameters

      node
      Node

      Return Value

      New reference count

      Discussion

      When the reference count reaches zero, the node (and any children) is deleted via mxmlDelete().

      mxmlRemove

      Remove a node from its parent.

      void mxmlRemove (
          mxml_node_t *node
      );

      Parameters

      node
      Node to remove

      Discussion

      Does not free memory used by the node - use mxmlDelete() for that. This function does nothing if the node has no parent.

       Mini-XML 2.3 mxmlRetain

      Retain a node.

      int mxmlRetain (
          mxml_node_t *node
      );

      Parameters

      node
      Node

      Return Value

      New reference count

       Mini-XML 2.3 mxmlSAXLoadFd

      Load a file descriptor into an XML node tree using a SAX callback.

      mxml_node_t *mxmlSAXLoadFd (
          mxml_node_t *top,
          int fd,
          mxml_load_cb_t cb,
          mxml_sax_cb_t sax_cb,
          void *sax_data
      );

      Parameters

      top
      Top node
      fd
      File descriptor to read from
      cb
      Callback function or MXML_NO_CALLBACK
      sax_cb
      SAX callback or MXML_NO_CALLBACK
      sax_data
      SAX user data

      Return Value

      First node or NULL if the file could not be read.

      Discussion

      The nodes in the specified file are added to the specified top node. If no top node is provided, the XML file MUST be well-formed with a single parent node like <?xml> for the entire file. The callback function returns the value type that should be used for child nodes. If MXML_NO_CALLBACK is specified then all child nodes will be either MXML_ELEMENT or MXML_TEXT nodes.

      The constants MXML_INTEGER_CALLBACK, MXML_OPAQUE_CALLBACK, MXML_REAL_CALLBACK, and MXML_TEXT_CALLBACK are defined for loading child nodes of the specified type.

      The SAX callback must call mxmlRetain() for any nodes that need to be kept for later use. Otherwise, nodes are deleted when the parent node is closed or after each data, comment, CDATA, or directive node.

       Mini-XML 2.3 mxmlSAXLoadFile

      Load a file into an XML node tree using a SAX callback.

      mxml_node_t *mxmlSAXLoadFile (
          mxml_node_t *top,
          FILE *fp,
          mxml_load_cb_t cb,
          mxml_sax_cb_t sax_cb,
          void *sax_data
      );

      Parameters

      top
      Top node
      fp
      File to read from
      cb
      Callback function or MXML_NO_CALLBACK
      sax_cb
      SAX callback or MXML_NO_CALLBACK
      sax_data
      SAX user data

      Return Value

      First node or NULL if the file could not be read.

      Discussion

      The nodes in the specified file are added to the specified top node. If no top node is provided, the XML file MUST be well-formed with a single parent node like <?xml> for the entire file. The callback function returns the value type that should be used for child nodes. If MXML_NO_CALLBACK is specified then all child nodes will be either MXML_ELEMENT or MXML_TEXT nodes.

      The constants MXML_INTEGER_CALLBACK, MXML_OPAQUE_CALLBACK, MXML_REAL_CALLBACK, and MXML_TEXT_CALLBACK are defined for loading child nodes of the specified type.

      The SAX callback must call mxmlRetain() for any nodes that need to be kept for later use. Otherwise, nodes are deleted when the parent node is closed or after each data, comment, CDATA, or directive node.

       Mini-XML 2.3 mxmlSAXLoadString

      Load a string into an XML node tree using a SAX callback.

      mxml_node_t *mxmlSAXLoadString (
          mxml_node_t *top,
          const char *s,
          mxml_load_cb_t cb,
          mxml_sax_cb_t sax_cb,
          void *sax_data
      );

      Parameters

      top
      Top node
      s
      String to load
      cb
      Callback function or MXML_NO_CALLBACK
      sax_cb
      SAX callback or MXML_NO_CALLBACK
      sax_data
      SAX user data

      Return Value

      First node or NULL if the string has errors.

      Discussion

      The nodes in the specified string are added to the specified top node. If no top node is provided, the XML string MUST be well-formed with a single parent node like <?xml> for the entire string. The callback function returns the value type that should be used for child nodes. If MXML_NO_CALLBACK is specified then all child nodes will be either MXML_ELEMENT or MXML_TEXT nodes.

      The constants MXML_INTEGER_CALLBACK, MXML_OPAQUE_CALLBACK, MXML_REAL_CALLBACK, and MXML_TEXT_CALLBACK are defined for loading child nodes of the specified type.

      The SAX callback must call mxmlRetain() for any nodes that need to be kept for later use. Otherwise, nodes are deleted when the parent node is closed or after each data, comment, CDATA, or directive node.

      mxmlSaveAllocString

      Save an XML tree to an allocated string.

      char *mxmlSaveAllocString (
          mxml_node_t *node,
          mxml_save_cb_t cb
      );

      Parameters

      node
      Node to write
      cb
      Whitespace callback or MXML_NO_CALLBACK

      Return Value

      Allocated string or NULL

      Discussion

      This function returns a pointer to a string containing the textual representation of the XML node tree. The string should be freed using the free() function when you are done with it. NULL is returned if the node would produce an empty string or if the string cannot be allocated.

      The callback argument specifies a function that returns a whitespace string or NULL before and after each element. If MXML_NO_CALLBACK is specified, whitespace will only be added before MXML_TEXT nodes with leading whitespace and before attribute names inside opening element tags.

      mxmlSaveFd

      Save an XML tree to a file descriptor.

      int mxmlSaveFd (
          mxml_node_t *node,
          int fd,
          mxml_save_cb_t cb
      );

      Parameters

      node
      Node to write
      fd
      File descriptor to write to
      cb
      Whitespace callback or MXML_NO_CALLBACK

      Return Value

      0 on success, -1 on error.

      Discussion

      The callback argument specifies a function that returns a whitespace string or NULL before and after each element. If MXML_NO_CALLBACK is specified, whitespace will only be added before MXML_TEXT nodes with leading whitespace and before attribute names inside opening element tags.

      mxmlSaveFile

      Save an XML tree to a file.

      int mxmlSaveFile (
          mxml_node_t *node,
          FILE *fp,
          mxml_save_cb_t cb
      );

      Parameters

      node
      Node to write
      fp
      File to write to
      cb
      Whitespace callback or MXML_NO_CALLBACK

      Return Value

      0 on success, -1 on error.

      Discussion

      The callback argument specifies a function that returns a whitespace string or NULL before and after each element. If MXML_NO_CALLBACK is specified, whitespace will only be added before MXML_TEXT nodes with leading whitespace and before attribute names inside opening element tags.

      mxmlSaveString

      Save an XML node tree to a string.

      int mxmlSaveString (
          mxml_node_t *node,
          char *buffer,
          int bufsize,
          mxml_save_cb_t cb
      );

      Parameters

      node
      Node to write
      buffer
      String buffer
      bufsize
      Size of string buffer
      cb
      Whitespace callback or MXML_NO_CALLBACK

      Return Value

      Size of string

      Discussion

      This function returns the total number of bytes that would be required for the string but only copies (bufsize - 1) characters into the specified buffer.

      The callback argument specifies a function that returns a whitespace string or NULL before and after each element. If MXML_NO_CALLBACK is specified, whitespace will only be added before MXML_TEXT nodes with leading whitespace and before attribute names inside opening element tags.

       Mini-XML 2.3 mxmlSetCDATA

      Set the element name of a CDATA node.

      int mxmlSetCDATA (
          mxml_node_t *node,
          const char *data
      );

      Parameters

      node
      Node to set
      data
      New data string

      Return Value

      0 on success, -1 on failure

      Discussion

      The node is not changed if it (or its first child) is not a CDATA element node.

       Mini-XML 2.1 mxmlSetCustom

      Set the data and destructor of a custom data node.

      int mxmlSetCustom (
          mxml_node_t *node,
          void *data,
          mxml_custom_destroy_cb_t destroy
      );

      Parameters

      node
      Node to set
      data
      New data pointer
      destroy
      New destructor function

      Return Value

      0 on success, -1 on failure

      Discussion

      The node is not changed if it (or its first child) is not a custom node.

      mxmlSetCustomHandlers

      Set the handling functions for custom data.

      void mxmlSetCustomHandlers (
          mxml_custom_load_cb_t load,
          mxml_custom_save_cb_t save
      );

      Parameters

      load
      Load function
      save
      Save function

      Discussion

      The load function accepts a node pointer and a data string and must return 0 on success and non-zero on error.

      The save function accepts a node pointer and must return a malloc'd string on success and NULL on error.

      mxmlSetElement

      Set the name of an element node.

      int mxmlSetElement (
          mxml_node_t *node,
          const char *name
      );

      Parameters

      node
      Node to set
      name
      New name string

      Return Value

      0 on success, -1 on failure

      Discussion

      The node is not changed if it is not an element node.

      mxmlSetErrorCallback

      Set the error message callback.

      void mxmlSetErrorCallback (
          mxml_error_cb_t cb
      );

      Parameters

      cb
      Error callback function

      mxmlSetInteger

      Set the value of an integer node.

      int mxmlSetInteger (
          mxml_node_t *node,
          int integer
      );

      Parameters

      node
      Node to set
      integer
      Integer value

      Return Value

      0 on success, -1 on failure

      Discussion

      The node is not changed if it (or its first child) is not an integer node.

      mxmlSetOpaque

      Set the value of an opaque node.

      int mxmlSetOpaque (
          mxml_node_t *node,
          const char *opaque
      );

      Parameters

      node
      Node to set
      opaque
      Opaque string

      Return Value

      0 on success, -1 on failure

      Discussion

      The node is not changed if it (or its first child) is not an opaque node.

      mxmlSetReal

      Set the value of a real number node.

      int mxmlSetReal (
          mxml_node_t *node,
          double real
      );

      Parameters

      node
      Node to set
      real
      Real number value

      Return Value

      0 on success, -1 on failure

      Discussion

      The node is not changed if it (or its first child) is not a real number node.

      mxmlSetText

      Set the value of a text node.

      int mxmlSetText (
          mxml_node_t *node,
          int whitespace,
          const char *string
      );

      Parameters

      node
      Node to set
      whitespace
      1 = leading whitespace, 0 = no whitespace
      string
      String

      Return Value

      0 on success, -1 on failure

      Discussion

      The node is not changed if it (or its first child) is not a text node.

      mxmlSetTextf

      Set the value of a text node to a formatted string.

      int mxmlSetTextf (
          mxml_node_t *node,
          int whitespace,
          const char *format,
          ...
      );

      Parameters

      node
      Node to set
      whitespace
      1 = leading whitespace, 0 = no whitespace
      format
      Printf-style format string
      ...
      Additional arguments as needed

      Return Value

      0 on success, -1 on failure

      Discussion

      The node is not changed if it (or its first child) is not a text node.

       Mini-XML 2.7 mxmlSetUserData

      Set the user data pointer for a node.

      int mxmlSetUserData (
          mxml_node_t *node,
          void *data
      );

      Parameters

      node
      Node to set
      data
      User data pointer

      Return Value

      0 on success, -1 on failure

       Mini-XML 2.3 mxmlSetWrapMargin

      Set the wrap margin when saving XML data.

      void mxmlSetWrapMargin (
          int column
      );

      Parameters

      column
      Column for wrapping, 0 to disable wrapping

      Discussion

      Wrapping is disabled when "column" is 0.

      mxmlWalkNext

      Walk to the next logical node in the tree.

      mxml_node_t *mxmlWalkNext (
          mxml_node_t *node,
          mxml_node_t *top,
          int descend
      );

      Parameters

      node
      Current node
      top
      Top node
      descend
      Descend into tree - MXML_DESCEND, MXML_NO_DESCEND, or MXML_DESCEND_FIRST

      Return Value

      Next node or NULL

      Discussion

      The descend argument controls whether the first child is considered to be the next node. The top node argument constrains the walk to the node's children.

      mxmlWalkPrev

      Walk to the previous logical node in the tree.

      mxml_node_t *mxmlWalkPrev (
          mxml_node_t *node,
          mxml_node_t *top,
          int descend
      );

      Parameters

      node
      Current node
      top
      Top node
      descend
      Descend into tree - MXML_DESCEND, MXML_NO_DESCEND, or MXML_DESCEND_FIRST

      Return Value

      Previous node or NULL

      Discussion

      The descend argument controls whether the previous node's last child is considered to be the previous node. The top node argument constrains the walk to the node's children.

      Data Types

      mxml_custom_destroy_cb_t

      Custom data destructor

      typedef void (*mxml_custom_destroy_cb_t)(void *);

      mxml_custom_load_cb_t

      Custom data load callback function

      typedef int (*mxml_custom_load_cb_t)( mxml_node_t *, const char *);

      mxml_custom_save_cb_t

      Custom data save callback function

      typedef char *(*mxml_custom_save_cb_t)( mxml_node_t *);

      mxml_entity_cb_t

      Entity callback function

      typedef int (*mxml_entity_cb_t)(const char *);

      mxml_error_cb_t

      Error callback function

      typedef void (*mxml_error_cb_t)(const char *);

      mxml_index_t

      An XML node index.

      typedef struct mxml_index_s mxml_index_t;

      mxml_load_cb_t

      Load callback function

      typedef mxml_type_t (*mxml_load_cb_t)(mxml_node_t *);

      mxml_node_t

      An XML node.

      typedef struct mxml_node_s mxml_node_t;

      mxml_save_cb_t

      Save callback function

      typedef const char *(*mxml_save_cb_t)( mxml_node_t *, int);

      mxml_sax_cb_t

      SAX callback function

      typedef void (*mxml_sax_cb_t)( mxml_node_t *, mxml_sax_event_t, void *);

      mxml_sax_event_t

      SAX event type.

      typedef enum mxml_sax_event_e mxml_sax_event_t;

      mxml_type_t

      The XML node type.

      typedef enum mxml_type_e mxml_type_t;

      Constants

      mxml_sax_event_e

      SAX event type.

      Constants

      MXML_SAX_CDATA
      CDATA node
      MXML_SAX_COMMENT
      Comment node
      MXML_SAX_DATA
      Data node
      MXML_SAX_DIRECTIVE
      Processing directive node
      MXML_SAX_ELEMENT_CLOSE
      Element closed
      MXML_SAX_ELEMENT_OPEN
      Element opened

      mxml_type_e

      The XML node type.

      Constants

      MXML_CUSTOM  Mini-XML 2.1 
      Custom data
      MXML_ELEMENT
      XML element with attributes
      MXML_IGNORE  Mini-XML 2.3 
      Ignore/throw away node
      MXML_INTEGER
      Integer value
      MXML_OPAQUE
      Opaque string
      MXML_REAL
      Real value
      MXML_TEXT
      Text fragment

      DXML Schema

      This appendix provides the XML schema that is used for the XML files produced by mxmldoc. This schema is available on-line at:

          http://www.msweet.org/schema/mxmldoc.xsd
      

      mxmldoc.xsd

      
      <?xml version="1.0"?>
      <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema">
        <xsd:annotation>
          <xsd:documentation xml:lang="en">
            Mini-XML 2.9 documentation schema for mxmldoc output.
            Copyright 2003-2014 by Michael Sweet.
          </xsd:documentation>
        </xsd:annotation>
      
        <!-- basic element definitions -->
        <xsd:element name="argument" type="argumentType"/>
        <xsd:element name="class" type="classType"/>
        <xsd:element name="constant" type="constantType"/>
        <xsd:element name="description" type="xsd:string"/>
        <xsd:element name="enumeration" type="enumerationType"/>
        <xsd:element name="function" type="functionType"/>
        <xsd:element name="mxmldoc" type="mxmldocType"/>
        <xsd:element name="namespace" type="namespaceType"/>
        <xsd:element name="returnvalue" type="returnvalueType"/>
        <xsd:element name="seealso" type="identifierList"/>
        <xsd:element name="struct" type="structType"/>
        <xsd:element name="typedef" type="typedefType"/>
        <xsd:element name="type" type="xsd:string"/>
        <xsd:element name="union" type="unionType"/>
        <xsd:element name="variable" type="variableType"/>
      
        <!-- descriptions of complex elements -->
        <xsd:complexType name="argumentType">
          <xsd:sequence>
            <xsd:element ref="type" minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="1"/>
            <xsd:element ref="description" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1"/>
          </xsd:sequence>
          <xsd:attribute name="default" type="xsd:string" use="optional"/>
          <xsd:attribute name="name" type="identifier" use="required"/>
          <xsd:attribute name="direction" type="direction" use="optional"
           default="I"/>
        </xsd:complexType>
      
        <xsd:complexType name="classType">
          <xsd:sequence>
            <xsd:element ref="description" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1"/>
            <xsd:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
      	<xsd:element ref="class"/>
      	<xsd:element ref="enumeration"/>
      	<xsd:element ref="function"/>
      	<xsd:element ref="struct"/>
      	<xsd:element ref="typedef"/>
      	<xsd:element ref="union"/>
      	<xsd:element ref="variable"/>
            </xsd:choice>
          </xsd:sequence>
          <xsd:attribute name="name" type="identifier" use="required"/>
          <xsd:attribute name="parent" type="xsd:string" use="optional"/>
        </xsd:complexType>
      
        <xsd:complexType name="constantType">
          <xsd:sequence>
            <xsd:element ref="description" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1"/>
          </xsd:sequence>
          <xsd:attribute name="name" type="identifier" use="required"/>
        </xsd:complexType>
      
        <xsd:complexType name="enumerationType">
          <xsd:sequence>
            <xsd:element ref="description" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1"/>
            <xsd:element ref="constant" minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
          </xsd:sequence>
          <xsd:attribute name="name" type="identifier" use="required"/>
        </xsd:complexType>
      
        <xsd:complexType name="functionType">
          <xsd:sequence>
            <xsd:element ref="returnvalue" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1"/>
            <xsd:element ref="description" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1"/>
            <xsd:element ref="argument" minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
            <xsd:element ref="seealso" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1"/>
          </xsd:sequence>
          <xsd:attribute name="name" type="identifier" use="required"/>
          <xsd:attribute name="scope" type="scope" use="optional"/>
        </xsd:complexType>
      
        <xsd:complexType name="mxmldocType">
          <xsd:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
            <xsd:element ref="class"/>
            <xsd:element ref="enumeration"/>
            <xsd:element ref="function"/>
            <xsd:element ref="namespace"/>
            <xsd:element ref="struct"/>
            <xsd:element ref="typedef"/>
            <xsd:element ref="union"/>
            <xsd:element ref="variable"/>
          </xsd:choice>
        </xsd:complexType>
      
        <xsd:complexType name="namespaceType">
          <xsd:sequence>
            <xsd:element ref="description" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1"/>
            <xsd:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
      	<xsd:element ref="class"/>
      	<xsd:element ref="enumeration"/>
      	<xsd:element ref="function"/>
      	<xsd:element ref="struct"/>
      	<xsd:element ref="typedef"/>
      	<xsd:element ref="union"/>
      	<xsd:element ref="variable"/>
            </xsd:choice>
          </xsd:sequence>
          <xsd:attribute name="name" type="identifier" use="required"/>
        </xsd:complexType>
      
        <xsd:complexType name="returnvalueType">
          <xsd:sequence>
            <xsd:element ref="type" minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="1"/>
            <xsd:element ref="description" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1"/>
          </xsd:sequence>
        </xsd:complexType>
      
        <xsd:complexType name="structType">
          <xsd:sequence>
            <xsd:element ref="description" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1"/>
            <xsd:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
      	<xsd:element ref="variable"/>
      	<xsd:element ref="function"/>
            </xsd:choice>
          </xsd:sequence>
          <xsd:attribute name="name" type="identifier" use="required"/>
        </xsd:complexType>
      
        <xsd:complexType name="typedefType">
          <xsd:sequence>
            <xsd:element ref="type" minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="1"/>
            <xsd:element ref="description" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1"/>
          </xsd:sequence>
          <xsd:attribute name="name" type="identifier" use="required"/>
        </xsd:complexType>
      
        <xsd:complexType name="unionType">
          <xsd:sequence>
            <xsd:element ref="description" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1"/>
            <xsd:element ref="variable" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
          </xsd:sequence>
          <xsd:attribute name="name" type="identifier" use="required"/>
        </xsd:complexType>
      
        <xsd:complexType name="variableType">
          <xsd:sequence>
            <xsd:element ref="type" minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="1"/>
            <xsd:element ref="description" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1"/>
          </xsd:sequence>
          <xsd:attribute name="name" type="identifier" use="required"/>
        </xsd:complexType>
      
        <!-- data types -->
        <xsd:simpleType name="direction">
          <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string">
            <xsd:enumeration value="I"/>
            <xsd:enumeration value="O"/>
            <xsd:enumeration value="IO"/>
          </xsd:restriction>
        </xsd:simpleType>
      
        <xsd:simpleType name="identifier">
          <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string">
            <xsd:pattern value="[a-zA-Z_(.]([a-zA-Z_(.,)* 0-9])*"/>
          </xsd:restriction>
        </xsd:simpleType>
      
        <xsd:simpleType name="identifierList">
          <xsd:list itemType="identifier"/>
        </xsd:simpleType>
      
        <xsd:simpleType name="scope">
          <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string">
            <xsd:enumeration value=""/>
            <xsd:enumeration value="private"/>
            <xsd:enumeration value="protected"/>
            <xsd:enumeration value="public"/>
          </xsd:restriction>
        </xsd:simpleType>
      </xsd:schema>